All Important Information about Male Hormones

All Important Information about Male Hormones

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Hormones are the body’s circulating chemical messengers that relay signals between glands, organs, tissues, and cells. Some hormones have minor roles, supporting only a singular function, while others play a significant role in our daily lives. Most hormones are equally important for men and women, with some, such as testosterone, being found in higher amounts in male bodies than in females.


The monthly hormonal fluctuation experienced by women is not the same for men. While hormone levels are frequently changing due to time of day, exercise, nutrition, and other factors, for the most part, they are relatively stable.


Some of these chemicals, such as growth hormone (GH), enter the bloodstream at various intervals for short periods to deliver their signals and then leave until their next release. Other hormones, such as testosterone, are always present.


Every hormone in the body is essential as it has a specific task. Because most of these chemicals in some way influence other hormones, any change can alter the levels of other hormones, inhibiting their proper functions.


Most hormones come from endocrine glands, with a few produced by various organs, such as the liver and kidneys. Many hormones are part of a feedback loop where one chemical will signal another, and so on, eventually alerting the original gland to increase or decrease hormone production.


Maintaining proper hormonal balance is the best thing a man can do for his body.



What Are the Main Male Hormones?


It is natural to think of testosterone as the primary male hormone due to its reputation as the male sex hormone. There is no doubt that testosterone plays a significant role in male health, yet it is equally as crucial for women. Testosterone is also not the only hormone of vital importance to men. Many others play pivotal roles, and we look more closely at some of them below:




Estradiol is the most abundant form of estrogen in men and plays a significant role in bone health, libido regulation, sperm production, and erectile function. The body converts excess free testosterone into estradiol via the enzyme aromatase from belly fat.




It is well known that testosterone regulates libido and plays a role in muscle mass and strength, fat distribution, production of red blood cells, and spermatogenesis. But what do you know about how testosterone increases bone density in men? Find out to be aware of all the benefits of testosterone. 




Although often considered a “female” hormone, progesterone is vital to men as it is a precursor hormone to testosterone. Derived from cholesterol, progesterone helps to calm the nervous system and has neuroprotective benefits for the brain.


      Control Hormones – FSH & LH


Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) play regulatory roles in male reproductive system functions. FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes, while LSH stimulates testosterone production. Both hormones come from the pituitary gland and travel through the bloodstream to the testes.




Another hormone often associated with females, as it promotes milk production, prolactin has crucial functions for men as it enhances LH receptors in the Leydig cells of the testes to improve testosterone production and spermatogenesis. Prolactin helps promote the formation of neurons (neurogenesis) in the brain, providing neuroprotective benefits for the central nervous system. Too much prolactin can cause men to experience erectile dysfunction, low libido, and headaches.




Another hormone that plays a role in male sexuality is oxytocin, assisting with testosterone production in the testes. Oxytocin also contracts the vas deferens to push semen and sperm forward for ejaculation.



Differences Between Male and Female Hormone Levels


The body’s chemical messengers are similar for males and females, with the primary difference being higher or lower levels based on gender needs. For example, women have more estrogen and lower testosterone levels than men. But just like men need estrogen for optimum well-being, women need a certain amount of testosterone to support specific androgen hormone functions.


Along with differences in levels, where specific hormone production occurs can vary. Men produce most of their testosterone in their testes, while the ovaries and adrenal glands supply the majority of female testosterone. Most of a woman’s estrogen and progesterone come from her ovaries, while men see those hormones produced in small amounts by the testes and the rest from peripheral tissues and the adrenal glands.


Another hormonal difference between men and women is thyroid disease, which occurs 5 to 8 times more frequently in females than males. Osteoporosis is another concern that brings differences between males and females. While women may have a higher risk factor and are more likely to receive treatment, men have double the risk of dying after suffering a hip fracture than women.


Human growth hormone (HGH) treatment also varies between men and women, as females with HGH deficiency often require higher doses of HGH than males. Oral vs. transdermal estrogen use by women can alter HGH dosage needs.


Male or female, ensuring your body has balanced hormone levels is crucial to protect against hormone-related illnesses.



What Happens When Hormones Are Low/High?


Hormonal imbalance can lead to many problems in the body, often influencing other hormones. Unsurprisingly, a search about low and high hormone levels frequently brings up estrogen first, as women are often more likely to research hormones. Testosterone is probably the most frequently reviewed hormone by men. Menopause and andropause (low testosterone) occur as we age due to changes in hormone production.


One of the misconceptions about change-of-life hormonal issues is that all hormone levels decline. In some cases, they may increase, especially in men. While testosterone levels decline, estrogen levels often rise due to the conversion of free testosterone into estradiol. You may notice this change if you start to see an increase in belly fat accumulation. Estrogen promotes aromatase secretion in belly fat, which is the enzyme that converts testosterone into estradiol. The more fat you have, the more testosterone converts into estrogen, increasing aromatase production – and the cycle continues.


Because progesterone is the precursor to testosterone, which converts into estradiol, we look more closely at what can happen if any of these three hormone levels are too low or high.




Women: High levels – acne, oily skin, increased body and facial hair, male pattern balding, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), increased muscle, deepening of the voice


Women: Low levels – fatigue, anemia, irregular menstrual cycle, thinning hair, infertility, low sex drive, insomnia, depression, muscle weakness, bone loss, vaginal dryness


Men: High levels – infertility, acne, oily skin, aggression, heart damage, worsening of sleep apnea


Men: Low levels – infertility, muscle loss, weight gain, depression, insomnia, sexual decline, erectile dysfunction, bone loss, mood changes, memory loss




Women: High levels – irregular periods, dense breast tissue, increased body fat, headaches, fibroids, low sex drive, depression, anxiety, breast tenderness


Women: Low levels – vaginal dryness, painful intercourse, hot flashes, depression, fatigue, tender breasts, mood changes, increased urinary tract infections, irregular periods, headaches, trouble concentrating, bone weakening


Men: High levels – weight gain, low libido, erectile dysfunction, depression, breast enlargement, reduced muscle mass, fatigue, infertility


Men: Low levels – weak bones, decreased sex drive, delayed ejaculation, weight gain, depression, increased risk of heart disease




Women: High levels – depression, bloating, anxiety, low sex drive, changes in weight, menstrual changes


Women: Low levels – weight gain, reduced sex drive, depression, heavy periods, gallbladder problems, trouble conceiving, miscarriage, insomnia, mood changes, hot flashes, headaches


Men: High levels – depression, fatigue, increased risk of heart conditions, increased estrogen, enlarged prostate, erectile dysfunction


Men: Low levels – erectile dysfunction, low libido, mood swings, fatigue, muscle loss, depression, trouble concentrating, low testosterone, hair loss



What Can Cause Hormonal Imbalances?


Each hormone has a range of what is normal, and if its level becomes too high or too low, that creates a hormonal imbalance in the body.


Hormonal imbalances can occur for many reasons and lead to other health issues, so identifying any problem is crucial.


      Puberty – During puberty, numerous hormone levels increase and fluctuate. That can lead to a hormonal imbalance that changes along with the production of these hormones.


      Stress – When you are stressed, your body increases the production of cortisol to help you deal with the stress. However, cortisol opposes other hormones, including HGH and testosterone, causing their levels to decline.


      Certain medications – Birth control medications, chemotherapy, antidepressants, opioids, and glucocorticoids can affect hormone levels.


      Steroid use – Taking steroids can increase testosterone levels too high and imbalance other hormones.


      Tumors, adenomas, or other growths – Any growth on glands or organs that produce hormones can influence their production and lead to an imbalance.


      Damage or injury to an endocrine gland – Any damage or injury to one of the endocrine glands or organs can interfere with hormone production. That includes damage from surgical complications, head injuries, radiation therapy, testicular injuries, decreased blood flow to the head, viral or bacterial illness, or blood loss.


      Autoimmune conditions – Some autoimmune conditions, including Addison’s disease, Graves’ disease, type 1 diabetes, Hashimoto’s disease, and polyglandular syndromes, can cause the immune system to attack parts of the body. If an endocrine gland or organ is involved, it can lead to a hormonal imbalance.


      And many others – Lack of sleep, menopause, pregnancy, eating disorders, hypo or hyperthyroidism, phytoestrogens, environmental toxins, poor dietary choices, alcohol consumption, being overweight, and lack of exercise can also cause hormone level fluctuations.

Finally, aging is a common cause of hormone imbalances, as the production of vital hormones, including testosterone and HGH, begin to decline before most people leave their twenties.





Hormones are vital chemical messengers that influence nearly all functions in the body. Because many hormones work together or stimulate or inhibit the production of others, keeping them in proper balance is vital.


Male health, cognitive performance, and sexual functions rely on balanced hormones. Symptoms of low or high hormone levels should never be ignored as they can lead to other problems. 

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